Biomass energy is an important renewable energy source. It is green, low-carbon, clean, and renewable. Accelerating the development and utilization of biomass energy is an important part of advancing the revolution in energy production and consumption. It is also an important task to improve environmental quality and develop a circular economy.
During the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, China's biomass energy industry developed rapidly, the scale of development and utilization continued to expand, and biomass power generation and liquid fuels formed a certain scale. The development of biomass shaped fuels and biological natural gas has begun, showing good momentum. The "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" is an important period for realizing energy transformation and upgrading. It is a critical period for new urbanization construction, ecological civilization construction, and the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Biomass energy faces important opportunities for industrial development. In accordance with the "13th Five-Year Plan" for energy development and the "13th Five-Year Plan" for renewable energy development, the "13th Five-Year Plan" for the development of biomass energy (hereinafter referred to as the "Plan") was formulated.
The "Plan" analyzes the current status of biomass energy development at home and abroad, elaborates the guiding ideology, basic principles, development goals, development layout and construction priorities of China's biomass energy industry during the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, and puts forward safeguard measures. The basic basis for the development of China's biomass energy industry during the 13th Five-Year Plan period.
I. Development Status and Situation
(I) Development Foundation
1. International Development Status
(1) Development status
Biomass energy is an important new energy in the world, with mature technology and wide application. It plays an important role in coping with global climate change, conflicts between energy supply and demand, and protecting the ecological environment. It is the fourth largest in the world after oil, coal, and natural gas. Energy has become an important force in the international energy transition.
Biomass power generation. As of 2015, the global installed capacity of biomass power generation was about 100 million kilowatts, of which 15.9 million kilowatts in the United States and 11 million kilowatts in Brazil. Biomass cogeneration has become an important heating method in Europe, especially in the Nordic countries. Domestic waste incineration power generation has developed rapidly, of which Japan's waste incineration power generation accounts for more than 70% of the domestic waste innocuous treatment.
Biomass molding fuel. As of 2015, the global biomass molding fuel production is about 30 million tons, and Europe is the world's largest biomass molding fuel consumption region, with an average annual output of about 16 million tons. The Nordic countries have a large proportion of biomass molding fuel consumption, of which Sweden's biomass molding fuel heating accounts for about 70% of total heating energy consumption.
Biomass gas. As of 2015, global biogas production was about 57 billion cubic meters, of which Germany's annual biogas production exceeded 20 billion cubic meters, and Swedish biogas met 30% of the country's automotive gas demand.
Bio liquid fuel. As of 2015, the global consumption of bio-liquid fuel was about 100 million tons, of which the global output of fuel ethanol was about 80 million tons, and the output of biodiesel was about 20 million tons. Brazilian sugarcane fuel ethanol and US corn fuel ethanol have been applied on a large scale.
(2) Development Trend
First, the diversified and distributed application of biomass energy has become a common feature of countries with better biomass energy development in the world. Second, the technology and commercial operation mode of bio-natural gas and molded fuel heating are basically mature, and have gradually become an important development direction of biomass energy. Biogas continues to expand into market areas such as automotive gas and natural gas supply. The application space of biomass heating in medium and small cities and towns is constantly expanding. Third, bio-liquid fuels have been extended to the bio-based chemical industry, and the technology has focused on diversified biorefineries that utilize non-grain biomass resources, forming rich energy-derived alternative products such as fuel ethanol, mixed alcohol, and biodiesel, and expanding aviation Application fields such as fuel and chemical raw materials.